Animal experimentation - whether it is needed or needs to be abolished?
Author: Ritika Rajkumar
“Ask the experiments why they experiment on animals and the answer is, ‘Because the animals are like us.’Ask the experimenters why it is morally okay to experiment on animals and the answer isBecause the animals are not like us.” –Charles Magel
Scientists experiment on animals for distinct reasons like exploring medication for human disease,study to examine how the body works,quality control testing of medicine, drugs pesticides, industrial chemical, vaccines, genetically modified food, and some consumer products. In these tests,animals including birds,dogs,fish, mice,rats, rabbits,guinea pigs, and monkeys are forced to swallow or whale a test substance or a chemical is applied to their skin or eyes.
Most countries do not keep a detailed record of the number of animals used in tests or in what experimentation they are used in. However, in 2005, one study estimated that more than 115 million animals were used for scientific purposes. The oppositions consider it is cruel and worthless, as research in animals often does not translate directly to humans.
In 1959, William Russell and Rex Burich proposed “3R’s” guidelines to follow in order to reduce the impact of research on animals. They restrict the use of animals by
sharing information with other researchers.
Upgrading exploratory techniques.
Refine experiments to minimize distress by
Finer medical protection
Greater lining state
And Replace test with alternative techniques such as
Utilize computer models.
Performing experiments on cell cultures rather than animals.
Animal experimentation and research are carried out to acquire knowledge about species generally humans. As Ritskes-Hoitinga and Werner stated, “We need a cultural change in which researchers are rewarded for producing valid and reproducible results that are relevant to patients and for doing justice to the animal being used.” Assuring translatability is tough enough in itself and it is totally reliant upon well-planned studies. Besides that, the animal facility must have a regular practice to maintain the balance of the environment and to gear up for any emergencies which might arise.
“In the late 1980s, people thought animal experimentation was singing its swan song,” says Larry Carlone, a senior veterinarian at the University of California in San Francisco. During these times the number of animals being used in experiments and testing was on the decline: the campus building a new multi-story biotechnology facility.
But then came the growth of tools that could restrictively modify individual genes in mice. This proved to be such a favored and robust technique that the reducing drift in animal use ground to a standstill.
The advancement of imaging methods that provide a glance inside the bodies of animals allows experimenters to get more and better data from each experiment than before. For instance, scientists earlier had to kill plenty of mice at various stages of tumor development but now they can non-invasively watch the disease unfold in a single animal living using fluorescent dye.
At present in vitro advances are also pointing regarding dependable possible methods. One such advance is the ability to reprogram human skin cells into a primordial, stem cell-like state. These induced pluripotent cells could be transformed into any limited cell in the body, like kidney or liver cells and these could be raised from people with a particular illness, giving scientists or researchers a potent and patient specifies a model of that disease in a dish.
When most mankind thinks about animal experimentation, they visualize plenty of rodents in pharmaceutical company labs. But according to data from European Union countries, the pharmaceutical sector uses almost half of the number of animals that academics labs do. Animal experimentation in drug development drips significantly between 2005 and 2008.
For some types of experiments there is no equivalent non-animal option, says Ottesen. However, pressure to suppress the use of animals in research – either for financial, scientific, or moral reasons is rising. At present, the use of animals in many sectors of life-sciences research is on the decline.
Diseases such as asthma can be studied in a living animal. Till there are cell-like humans that can be studied, animal experimentation is required. All drugs need to experiment on animals for safety before they can is used in humans. If there are responsible alternatives, animals are not used. There must be crystal clear scientific reasons for experimentation on animals to be considered. Through experimentation on animals, are capable to ensure any risks of a drug are detected and reduced before it is listed on individuals. This helps to reduce the side effects of human fatalities. Studies regarding animals are always used alongside different types of experimentation such as cell cultures, computer modeling, and human clinical trials. Using animals in experimentation has been a crucial part of science and has allowed our understanding of we function to progress in leaps and bounds.